In his last major statement on the subject, ferguson himself was moved to comment on how research over the course of the preceding three decades had failed to adopt a. Jul 12, 20 the term diglossia was introduced into the english language literature on sociolinguistic by charles a. The creation of a typology of diglossia is not a simple task as it must be more than just a gathering of case studies of language in society, meaning a theory of language in society. Diglossia is not limited to any geographical area or language family, and diglossias have existed for centuries or millennia arabic, south asia. One is used in one set of circumstances and the other in an entirely different set.
Diglossia s suite of language assessments provide valid and reliable data to make informed decisions when evaluating language program effectiveness, adopting new curricula, and. According to ferguson 1959, the hvariety and the lvariety have to be two divergent forms of the same language which are above the level of a standardwithdialects distinction, but which stay below the level of two separate related or unrelated. Who we are launched in 2014, diglossia is a global language company dedicated to changing lives by fostering language development and literacy throughout the world. A key defining characteristic of diglossia is that two varieties are kept quite apart functionally. A description of diglossia essay example graduateway. What engenders diglossia and under what conditions. Such a situation exists in many speech communities throughout the worlde.
The term diglossia from the greek for speaking two languages was first used in english by linguist charles ferguson in 1959. Diglossia, the coexistence of two varieties of the same language throughout a speech community. Ferguson s concept of diglossia is examined with a view to dedetermining its applicability to creole continua. Diglossia was first introduced by ferguson as cited in holmes, 2007 as a stable language situation where two or more varieties of the same language have different roles to play in society, with one regarded as a high or h variety and the other as a low or l. Fergusons article and the ways in which it was interpreted in subsequent research. Most diglossias involve literacy, but oral diglossias are conceivable. An american scientist called charles ferguson introduced this term into english in 1959. One of the first to have systematically developed and defined diglossia was ferguson in a. Dec 04, 2014 in this electure, i discuss ferguson s classical article called diglossia published in 1959. Diglossia is the occurrence of two distinct varieties of a language. In order to describe the situation found in places like greece, the arabicspeaking world in general,german speaking switzerland and the island of haiti a list which can easily be extended a. For instance, the most common is a high variety, which is taught at school, used in the media, at church, and at scholarly gatherings, and a low variety, which is used in informal settings, such as friendly conversations or at home.
Since the 1960s, when the dominant sense of diglossia was the complementary sociofunctional distribution of two varieties of the same language, the term has been applied often controversially to a growing number of diverse sociolinguistic situations. The middle way david deterding introduction the concept of diglossia was developed by ferguson 1959. There is a need to clarify the precise meaning of what is traditionally. Diction versus diglossia diglossia is more involved than just switching between levels of diction in the same language, such as going from slang or texting shortcuts to writing up a formal paper for a class or report. Perhaps the most familiar example is the standard language and regional dialect as used, say, in italian or persian, where many speakers speak their local dialect at home. Diglossia definition of diglossia by merriamwebster. Ferguson who later developed a theory of diglossia as applied to the high and low. According to ferguson, diglossia is a relatively stable language situation. The characteristics of classic instances of diglossia are subdivided into sociocultural and linguistic features, and these in turn are used as a basis for determining the extent to which different types of community might be fruitfully described as diglossic. The impact of diglossia in teachinglearning the arabic. This article outlines the diglossic approach to intraspeaker grammatical variation ferguson 1959, wherein speakerhearers acquire two grammars which are sociostylistically distinct one high, the other low but linguistically related to the extent that users regard them as the same language, and then engage one or other of them but do not mix them in their active productions. Definition and examples of diglossia sociolinguistics. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Please define and explain and give examples for diglossia.
It describes a situation where two languages or language varieties occur side by side in a community, and each has a clear range of functions. The concept of diglossia in caribbean creole situations. Pdf on jan 11, 2002, alan hudson and others published outline of a theory. Diglossia is a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary linguistics sociolinguistics 10. Often, one form is the literary or prestige dialect, and the other is a common dialect spoken by most of the population. According to ferguson 2005, diglossia is defined as the. Ferguson diglossia 1 in many speech communities two or more varieties of the same language2 are used by some speakers under different conditions.
Ferguson gave the classical definition of diglossia. Fergusons nine characteristics of diglossia as a potentially open ended checklist of features or parameters of a sociolinguistic typology or have tended to focus their attentions on one. In this electure, i discuss fergusons classical article called diglossia published in 1959. Fishman 1967 the existence in some speech communities of two or more significantly discrepant but culturally legitimate speech varieties, one of which is a universally available vernacular variety l, and the other. Distribution of diglossia in languagefamilies, space, and time. Diglossia definition of diglossia by the free dictionary. Comhairesylvain, le creole haitien wetteren and portau. Then i go through its main features as introduced in his article. Diglossia one linguistic variety, the high variety hvariety, is the prestige variety generally a standard variety and is typically reserved for official functions in more formal speech situations in the public sphere e.
Modelled on the french diglossie, the original concept of diglossia goes back to charles ferguson 1959. Today, the notion of diglossia occupies a prominent place in sociolinguistic research. Diglossia definition is the use of two varieties of the same language in different social contexts throughout a speech community. In addition to the communitys everyday or vernacular language variety labeled l or low variety, a second, highly codified lect labeled h or high is used in certain situations such as literature, formal education, or other specific.328 593 892 279 1155 1467 1172 402 521 1337 1222 1553 1298 151 1576 1350 815 321 888 1575 318 31 711 1314 377 851 1477 970 399 442 485 795 967 1621 1419 460 1098 991 1008 1280 99 577 184